What is Data Communication| 5 Components

What is data communication

Let’s quickly discuss what you are going to learn in the post on computer networks. Following are the points which you learn in this tutorial

  • What is Data Communication
  • Data Communication Model with block Diagram
  • Components of Data communication Model with examples

Let’s Get Started, Happy learning!

What is Data Communication

Data communication is the exchange of data between two devices via some form of transmission medium. For data communication to occur, the communication devices must be part of the communication system. The data communication system is made up of hardware and software.

Hardware is physical equipment or components and software include programs. Thus the basic aim of data communication and networking is to be able to exchange data such as text, audio, and video from one point to another.

Data Communication Model

The data communication model is consists of three systems such as source, transmission and destination system. It has five components as follows:

  • Source
  • Transmitter
  • Transmission System
  • Receiver
  • Destination

The following shows the basic block diagram of data communication Model in computer networks

components of Data communication Model

Components of Data Communication Model

The following are the communication of data communication Model


The device generates the data to be transmitted. For example, telephones and Personal Computers


The data generated by the source is not directly transmitted. The transmitter is used to convert data into electromagnetic signals. For example, Modem ( modulator and demodulator). The modem takes a digital bit from a personal computer and transforms it into an analog signal.

Transmission System

A Transmission system can be a single transmission line or complex network connectivity between source and destination system.


The receiver accepts the signal from the transmission system and converts it into a form that is handled by the destination device. For example, A Modem accepts an analog signal and convert it into a digital bitstream.


A Destination takes the incoming data from the receiver.

I hope now you will have an idea that what is data communication model and what its components are.

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