In this tutorial, you’re going to learn about the channel allocation problem in computer networks with its types.
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Channel Allocation Problem in Computer Networks
In a broadcast network, the single broadcast channel is to be allocated to one transmitting user at a time. When multiple users use a shared network and want to access the same network. Then channel allocation problem in computer networks occurs.
So, to allocate the same channel between multiple users, techniques are used, which are called channel allocation techniques in computer networks.
Channel Allocation Techniques
For the efficient use of frequencies, time-slots and bandwidth channel allocation techniques are used. There are three types of channel allocation techniques that you can use to resolve channel allocation problem in computer networks as follows:
- Static channel allocation
- Dynamic channel allocation
- Hybrid channel allocation.
Static Channel Allocation
The traditional way of allocating a single channel between multiple users is called static channel allocation. Static channel allocation is also called fixed channel allocation. Such as a telephone channel among many users is a real-life example of static channel allocation.
The frequency division multiplexing (FDM) and time-division multiplexing (TDM) are two examples of static channel allocation. In these methods, either a fixed frequency or fixed time slot is allotted to each user.
Dynamic Channel Allocation
The technique in which channels are not permanently allocated to the users is called dynamic channel allocation. In this technique, no fixed frequency or fixed time slot is allotted to the user.
The allocation depends upon the traffic. If the traffic increases, more channels are allocated, otherwise fewer channels are allocated to the users.
This technique optimizes bandwidth usage and provides fast data transmission. Dynamic channel allocation is further categorized into two parts as follows:
- Centralized dynamic channel allocation
- Distributed dynamic channel allocation
The following are the assumptions in dynamic channel allocation:
Station Model: Comprises N independent stations with a program for transmission.
Single Channel: A single channel is available for all communication.
Collision: If frames are transmitted at the same time by two or more stations, then the collision occurs.
Continuous or slotted time: There is no master clock that divides time into discrete time intervals.
Carrier or no carrier sense: Stations sense the channel before transmission.
Hybrid Channel Allocation
The mixture of fixed channel allocation and dynamic channel allocation is called hybrid channel allocation. The total channels are divided into two sets, fixed and dynamic sets.
First, a fixed set of channels is used when the user makes a call. If all fixed sets are busy, then dynamic sets are used. When there is heavy traffic in a network, then hybrid channel allocation is used.
Difference Between Static and Dynamic Channel Allocation
There are some differences between static and dynamic channel allocation. The following table shows the comparison of fixed channel allocation and dynamic channel allocation.
|Fixed Channel allocation||Dynamic Channel allocation|
|In this technique, a fixed number of channels are allocated to the cells.||In this technique, channels are not permanently allocated to the cells.|
|Mobile station centre has fewer responsibilities.||The mobile station centre has more responsibilities.|
The allocation is not dependent on traffic.
The allocation depends on the traffic.
|Fixed channel allocation is cheaper than dynamic channel allocation.||Dynamic channel allocation is costly as compared to fixed channel allocation.|
|In this no need of complex algorithms.||Complex algorithms are used in this.|
Have you enjoyed this tutorial on the channel allocation problem in computer networks? Also, try the following computer networks notes.